DMARC (Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance) is a tool that helps protect email domains from being used for spam or phishing. One of the key parts of DMARC is the feedback it provides to domain owners in the form of aggregate reports. But how are these reports sent? Here’s a simple explanation.

How Are Aggregate Reports Sent?

When a mail receiver (like an email service) prepares an aggregate report, it looks at the DMARC policy for the domain. The policy includes a “rua” tag, which tells the receiver where to send the report.

The receiver should use a secure way to send the report. This helps protect the information in the report.

The receiver checks the reporting addresses (URIs) in the order they’re given in the “rua” tag. If the report is too big for a URI (after it’s been compressed and encoded), the receiver doesn’t use that URI.

The receiver tries to send the report to every URI that can handle it, up to a certain limit. This limit depends on what URIs the receiver supports.

What Happens If the Report Can’t Be Sent?

Sometimes, the receiver might not be able to send the report. This could be because the URIs in the “rua” tag aren’t reachable, or because the report is too big for all the URIs.

If this happens, the receiver should send a short report to the domain owner. This report just says that a full report is available but couldn’t be sent.

The receiver can then choose to either keep the full report and try to send it again later, or discard the report.

Remember, this is a simplified explanation. In reality, sending DMARC aggregate reports involves a lot of complex processes and technologies. But hopefully, this gives you a basic understanding of how it works.

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